Emergency Treatment of Cardiac Arrest

Cardiac arrest can strike without warning.

Do you suspect that someone is experiencing cardiac arrest? Here are the signs:

  • Sudden loss of responsiveness The person doesn’t respond, even if you tap him or her hard on the shoulders, or ask loudly if he or she is OK. The person doesn’t move, speak, blink or otherwise react.
  • No normal breathing The person isn’t breathing or is only gasping for air.

What to do

If you witness a cardiac arrest, it’s crucial to call 1122/EMS and start CPR immediately. To learn how to perform CPR, follow these simple steps:

  • Step 1: Shake and shout
  • Step 2: Check for normal breathing
  • Step 3: Call 1122/EMS
  • Step 4: Give 30 chest compressions
  • Step 5: Give 2 rescue breaths
  • Step 6: Repeat until an ambulance arrives

Remember – even if you haven’t been trained in CPR with rescue breathing, you can still use hands-only CPR.

Step 1: Shake and shout

If you come across someone who is unconscious, always check for danger and look for risks before you start helping.

  • Check for a response – gently shake the person’s shoulders and ask loudly ‘are you alright?’
  • Shout for help – if someone is nearby, ask them to stay as you might need them. If you are alone, shout loudly to attract attention, but don’t leave the person.

Step 2: Check for normal breathing

Someone having a cardiac arrest won’t be breathing, or won’t be breathing normally. They also won’t be conscious. Keeping their head back, check if the person is breathing normally by looking for:

  • regular chest movements
  • listening for breathing
  • feeling for breath on your cheek.

Look, listen and feel for no more than 10 secondsDon’t confuse gasps with normal breathing. If you’re not sure if their breathing is normal, act as if it’s not normal.

  • If you’re sure the person is breathing normally, then put them in the recovery position and call 1122/EMS.
  • If breathing isn’t normal, open their airway. Place one hand on the person’s forehead, gently tilt their head back, then lift their chin using two fingers of your other hand under their chin – when you do this you open their airway.

Step 3: Call 1122/EMS

If the person is not breathing or not breathing normally:

  • ask someone to call 1122/EMS immediately and ask for an ambulance
  • check if AED is available and use it.

If you can’t find anyone to help, call 1122/EMS before you start CPR.

Step 4: Give 30 chest compressions

  • Kneel next to the person.
  • Place the heel of one hand in the centre of their chest. Place your other hand on top of the first. Interlock your fingers.
  • With straight arms, use the heel of your hand to push the breastbone down firmly and smoothly, so that the chest is pressed down between 5–6 cm, and release.
  • Do this at a rate of 100 to 120 chest compressions per minute – that’s around 2 per second.
  • Give 30 chest compressions.

Step 5: Give two rescue breaths

  • Open the airway again by tilting the head back and lifting the chin. Pinch the soft part of the person’s nose closed.
  • Take a normal breath, make a seal around their mouth and breathe out steadily.
  • The person’s chest should rise and fall. Keeping the person’s head back and the chin lifted, take your mouth away, take another normal breath, and give a second rescue breath. The two breaths should take no longer than five seconds.

Step 6: Repeat until an ambulance arrives

  • Repeat 30 compressions and 2 rescue breaths.

If you’d rather not give rescue breaths then call 1122/EMS and deliver hands-only CPR. That’s better than doing nothing.

Keep going until professional help arrives and takes over, or the person starts to show signs of regaining consciousness, such as coughing, opening their eyes, speaking, or breathing normally.

If you’re feeling tired, and there’s someone nearby to help, instruct them to continue.

Who can you save with CPR?

The life you save with CPR is mostly likely to be a loved one. More than 80% of OHCA occurs at home.

FATSAL is pleased to announce series of CPR Workshops (BLS Courses) in IslamabadLahore, Karachi, Multan, Faisalabad & Peshawar to raise awareness about cardiac emergencies and train people in CPR and anti-choking skills to save lives.

These workshops are 3.5-hours session where adult, child and infant manikins would be available for hands-on learning. Also the anti-choking trainer would be there to learn how to relief choking person.

These workshops are open for ages 15 and overPre-registration is must. The workshop fee for per person (=1500/- PKR) which includes wallet card for quick reference, certificate and tea/refreshment. There would be only 12 participants & appropriate equipment/supplies available to ensure you have ample time and quality learning session. There are multiple sessions on any given day.

To Your Safety,
Faisal Javed Mir & First Aid to Save a Life

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You might also like:
Basic Life Support (BLS) Session in Karachi
2-Days Practical First Aid & CPR Session in Karachi
Practical First Aid & CPR Session in Lahore
Practical First Aid & CPR Session in Faisalabad
Family First Aid Course
Community Training Programs
Upcoming Training Courses


About Faisal Javed Mir

Faisal Javed Mir is Occupational Health and Safety Professional, having 15+ years of profound experience in training and consultancy. He has knowledge, skills, experience, tools, proven history and confidence to deliver what is required by the valued clients. He is teaching First Aid since 2006 and certified by MEDIC First Aid International of United States for many first aid certification programs. He is the only Instructor-Trainer by MEDIC First Aid and American Health and Safety Institute (ASHI) in Pakistan.
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